This website has been created as an informational resource for teachers and researchers who are interested in exploring the use and/or development of [(PST)2+ iC3] — a set of ten strategies that may support the development of students’ online inquiry and multiple Internet text integration (MITI) skills. These skills are sometimes called online synthesis skills (e.g., Castek, 2008; Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Leu, Kinzer, Coiro & Cammack, 2004). I have chosen to use the word ‘integration’ because it is consistent with the language used in the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in Social Studies/History, Science and Technical Subjects (National Governors Association Center and Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010) and with a broader tradition of research that has explored how novices and experts construct models of understanding from multiple texts (e..g. Bråten, Strømsø, & Britt, 2009; Britt & Aglinskas, 2002; Cerdán & Vidal-Abarca, 2008; Perfetti, Rouet & Britt, 1999; Rouet, 2006; Wiley & Voss, 1999; Wineburg, 1991).

The formula is grounded in several theoretical frames and is inspired by decades of work by many researchers in the fields of reading, literacy, new literacies and cognitive psychology.  A list of references to research that undergirds [(PST)2+ iC3]  can be found on the “research” tab.

Importantly, this website will continue to evolve as research explores the impact of MITI skills instruction with K-12 students. It is important to recognize that although early work has shown promise (as presented at the 2013 Michigan Reading Association Conference), the base of evidence for [(PST)2+ iC3] is, as yet, quite thin. Teachers are therefore encouraged to give it a try if they see value in this list of strategies for their own students and teaching context. However, they should be aware that evidence that could inform instructional practice is still being collected and analyzed and has not yet been peer reviewed or published in academic journals.


Bråten, I., Strømsø, H. I., & Britt, M. A. (2009). Trust matters: Examining the role of source evaluation in students’ construction of meaning within and across multiple texts. Reading Research Quarterly, 44(1), 6-28. doi:10.1598/RRQ.41.1.1

Britt, M. A., & Aglinskas, C. (2002). Improving students’ ability to identify and use source  information. Cognition and Instruction, 20(4), 485-522.

Castek, J. (2008). How do 4th and 5th grade students acquire the new literacies of online reading comprehension? Exploring the contexts that facilitate learning. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations and theses (3340875).

Cerdán, R., & Vidal-Abarca, E. (2008). The effects of tasks on integrating information from multiple documents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 209–222. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.100.1.209

Coiro, J., & Dobler, E. (2007). Exploring the online reading comprehension strategies used by sixth-grade skilled readers to search for and locate information on the Internet. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(2), 214-257. doi:10.1598/RRQ.42.2.2

Leu, D. J., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J., & Cammack, D. W. (2004). Toward a theory of new literacies emerging from the Internet and other information communication technologies. In R. Ruddell & N. Unrau (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (5th ed., pp. 1568-1611). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & The Council of Chief State School Officers (2010). Common core state standards for English language arts & literacy in history/social studies, science and technical subjects. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards

Perfetti, C. A., Rouet, J.-F., & Britt, M. A. (1999). Toward a theory of documents representation. In H. van Oostendorp & S. R. Goldman (Eds.), The construction of mental representations during reading (pp. 99-122). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rouet, J.-F. (2006). The skills of document use: From text comprehension to web-based learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wiley, J., & Voss, J.F. (1999). Constructing arguments from multiple sources: Tasks that promote understanding and not just memory for text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 301-311.

Wineburg, S. (1991). Historical problem solving: A study of the cognitive processes used in the evaluation of documentary and pictorial evidence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 73-87.